LRMI Learning Resource Type vocabulary

Title LRMI Learning Resource Type Vocabulary
Creator: LRMI Task Group (DC-Education Community)
Editors: Phil Barker
Date Issued 2022-04-05
Scheme Identifier
RDF/ttl encoding
Status: Public Draft for Comment
Description: The LRMI Learning Resource Type Vocabulary enumerates different types of learning resource. It is designed to provide values for the lrmi learningResourceType property.
License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC:BY 4.0).

Table of Contents LRMI logo

  1. Notice
  2. Introduction and Definitions
  3. Explanatory Notes
  4. Namespaces and Scheme Identifiers
  5. Learning Resource Vocabulary

0. Notice: Draft for Comment

This Learning Resource Type vocabulary is published as a public draft for comment. We welcome comments, questions and suggestions on the coverage, the definitions of the concepts and other aspects of the scheme. Please comment before May 30, 2022, by email to the LRMI task group maillist [email protected] or our by raising an issue on our github repository,

Please note that all comments will form part of the public record of the development of this vocabulary.

1. Introduction and Definitions

LRMI Learning Resource Type Vocabulary is a small "top-level" vocabulary intended to provide values for the LRMI learningResourceType property in learning resource description and web markup. It is designed to supplement existing more generic resource type schemes and can support local extensions. It is one of several such vocabularies from LRMI. For a general description of the approach common to all LRMI concept schemes see the LRMI Concept Schemes page. As with all LRMI concept schemes, the intention is to provide a small number of broad, top-level concepts. Users who need to classify against more specific concepts are encouraged to declare these concepts using SKOS and to map them to the appropriate LRMI concept using skos:broadMatch.

The vocabulary is defined as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) Concept Scheme. A subset of terms from the table shown on the LRMI Concept Schemes page is used in defining the concept scheme and its associated concepts. These terms are drawn from the SKOS and other namespaces identified in Section 2.

2. Explanatory Notes

By learning resource we mean a persistent resource that has one or more physical or digital representation, and that explicitly involves, specifies or entails a learning activity or learning experience. Since a learning resource is persistent it cannot be an event (though it can be a record of an event); in a separate class, EducationEvent, exists to cover these. In LRMI learning resources are creative works, that is the LRMI definition of the learning resource class states that it is a subclass of CreativeWork (this does not preclude the use of LRMI terms with other vocabularies, such as Dublin Core). It follows that, for LRMI, learning resources cannot be, for example, a person. A learning activity or experience is one that has characteristics that may improve or measure a person's knowledge, skills or abilities. A learning resource may reference other supporting materials, creative works, tools, etc. that do not themselves meet the definition of learning resource.

Things that do not fall under this definition of learning resource that are relevant to learning should be classified using other appropriate concept schemes, for example the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms.

What is a Learning Resource Type?

By type we mean a category for what kind of learning resource is being described. The vocabulary concepts are intended for use with the LRMI learningResourceType property and similar properties in other schemas. Examples of learning resource type include 'textbook', 'lesson plan', 'lecture recording'.

The LRMI Resource Type Concept Scheme is not intended to indicate the encoding format, mime-type, material, educational use and other characteristics of a learning resource. Other vocabulary schemes exist for these other categorizations, for example, IANA mime types for encoding format, RDA carrier type for material, and the LRMI Concept Scheme for Educational Use.

About this Concept Scheme

This is not intended to be a complete list. The aim is that it should be possible to classify any learning resource using one or more concept from this scheme. That is probably not yet the case and so the list is open for further additions, see below.

This is not a detailed list. While there is a tendency to want to classify learning resources more precisely, several efforts to do so in a wide range of contexts have exposed the ambiguity of such classifications. Providing a more detailed set of concepts increases ambiguity even as it seems to increase specificity. The aim is that although the concepts here are broad, they will be useful; however, for specialized uses it may be necessary for other concept schemes to refine or subdivide these concepts. A skos:broadMatch relationship may be declared to express a relationship from such a concept to one in this LRMI Resource Type concept scheme. For example a service specializing in textbooks may wish to create classification concepts that are narrower than the TextBook concept defined here in order to classify more specific types of text book. We hope they will define a skos:broadMatch relationship between their concepts and ours, and that they will find it useful to publish descriptions that include reference to our broader concept defined here if it is more widely understood.

No hierarchy is hard-wired into the concept names or identifiers. Relationships between concepts, which may include the concepts being broader and narrower than each other, will be specified using SKOS, but we would not create a concept with the sole purpose of gathering a group of concepts under one heading. This maximises compatibility with other vocabularies (a rabbit is a rabbit regardless of whether it is classified in a hierarchy under pets, food or mammals). It also avoids the sometimes awkward or arbitrary results of having to place everything in a hierarchy.

The concept identifiers and definitions defined here are normative; labels and scope notes are not normative.

Edge cases will always exist and require thoughtful application of these properties that best addresses use of the resource in its learning context.

Suggesting new concepts

It is not the aim to provide a comprehensive list of every possible category of learning resource, the aim is to provide a limited number of broad categories such that the type of any learning resource can be specified.

If there is a broad type of learning resource that you think is not covered and which meets the definitions provided in notes above, please open an issue using the new learning resource type template. (Alternatively you may contact the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative LRMI Task Group at [email protected])

3. Namespaces and Scheme Identifiers

The namespaces in the table below are referenced in the definitions of the concept schemes and their component concepts:

Prefix IRI
adms Asset Description Metadata Schema
bibo> The Bibliographic Ontology: Document Status
cedslrt: CEDS Learning Resource Type
dc DCMI Metadata Element Set
dcterms DCMI Metadata Terms
loc Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms
rdf RDF 1.1 Concepts vocabulary
rdfs The RDF Schema vocabulary
skos Simple Knowledge Organization System
vs SemWeb Vocab Status ontology
xsd XML Schema (datatypes)

The IRI for the LRMI Learning Resource Type Concept Scheme,, is abbreviated as the prefix resourceType. Thus resourceType:activityPlan stands for

4. Learning Resource Type

Type: SKOS:ConceptScheme
Title: LRMI Learning Resource Type Concept Scheme
Description: A concept scheme that enumerates different types of learning resource. By learning resource we mean a persistent resource that has one or more physical or digital representation, and that explicitly involves, specifies or entails a learning activity or learning experience.
Creator: LRMI Task Group (DCMI)
Date Submitted: 2022-01-25
Status: bibo:draft

Activity Plan

Label: activity plan
Definition: Detailed description of an activity engaged in by the learner for the purpose of acquiring certain skills, concepts, or knowledge, whether guided by an instructor or not.
Scope Note: There may be several activities in a lesson or an activity may take place outside of a lesson.
Source: cedslrt:LearningActivity
Exact Match: cedslrt:LearningActivity
Related Match: loc:gf2018026088 (Lesson plans)
Term Status: unstable


Label: assessment
Definition: Set of assessment items used to evaluate or promote learning.
Close Match:
Narrow Match: cedslrt:AlternateAssessment cedslrt:FormativeAssessment cedslrt:InterimSummativeAssessment cedslrt:SelfAssessment
Related Match: loc:gf2014026154 (Problems and exercises)
Term Status: unstable

Assessment Item

Label: assessment item
Definition: Specific prompt, that defines a question or protocol for a measurable activity that triggers a response from a person used to determine whether the person has mastered a learning objective.
Source: cedslrt:AssessmentItem
Exact Match: cedslrt:AssessmentItem
Broad Match: loc:gf2014026096 (Examinations)
Narrow Match: loc:gf2014026154 (Problems and exercises)
Term Status: unstable

Educator Curriculum Guide

Label: educator curriculum guide
Definition: Document that defines what concepts should be taught and/or how a concept should be taught effectively.
Source: cedslrt:EducatorCurriculumGuide
Exact Match: cedslrt:EducatorCurriculumGuide
Broad Match: loc:gf2014026188 (Teachers' guides)
Term Status: unstable

Lesson Plan

Label: lesson plan
Definition: Detailed description of the course of instruction for a ­short period of time that is used by a teacher to guide class instruction.
Source: cedslrt:Lesson
Exact Match: loc:gf2018026088 (Lesson Plans), cedslrt:Lesson
Term Status: unstable

Physical Learning Resource

Label: physical learning resource
Definition: Physical object, hardware or device designed to help a learner achieve some learning objective.
Scope Note: Examples include educational toys, programmable robots, manipulables used by learners. This does not include auxiliary resources (e.g. pencil, paper, scissors, soldering iron) required for a learning activity.
Narrow Match: loc:gf2018026057 (Manipulatives)
Term Status: unstable

Recorded Lesson

Label: recorded lesson
Definition: Audio or video recording, or textual record (e.g. transcript or edited script) of a lesson, lecture or similar short instructional event.
Related Match: loc:gf2011026219 (Educational films) loc:gf2014026122 (Lectures)
Term Status: unstable

Supporting Document

Label: supporting document
Definition: Document with an instructional component designed to help a learner achieve some learning objective.
Scope Note: These are typically static text and or images that may be physical or online. Examples include training manuals, infographics, explainers, textbook chapters, slides from a lesson in whatever form. For textbooks use Textbook. This does not include supplementary/auxilliary resources (e.g. the text being studied in a language class) required for a learning activity.
Narrow Match: loc:gf2014026073 (Course materials)
Term Status: unstable


Label: textbook
Definition: Book designed to be used as a standard source of information to facilitate learning of a particular subject.
Source: cedslrt:Textbook
Exact Match: loc:gf2014026191 (Textbooks) cedslrt:Textbook
Term Status: unstable

Unit Plan

Label: unit plan
Definition: Long-range plan of instruction on a particular concept.
Scope Note: A Unit contains several lessons, activities and or assessments that are related.
Source: cedslrt:Unit
Exact Match: cedslrt:Unit
Broad Match: loc:gf2014026114 (Instructional and educational works)
Term Status: unstable

Maintained by the LRMI Task Group.