24 October 2006
This version: http://dublincore.org/groups/citation/citstyles.html
Editor: Ann Apps < firstname.lastname@example.org>
MIMAS, The University of Manchester, UK
Contributor: Eric Childress, OCLC
Status of this document: Completed Working Group Resource
Description: This document contains details of citation styles which could be used as encoding schemes for a citation identifier.
There may be utility in registering with DCMI as encoding schemes tokens for selected citation guides to allow users to identify a citation scheme that guided their citation text. This might facilitate conversion of text to a structured form, but it also seems quite possible that bibliographers and others would be pleased to use and to find 'DC.Identifier.citation, scheme=mla' ("MLA" style) over 'DC.Identifier.citation' (even if the form of the "free" text follows MLA) to expressly identify the scheme guiding any formally-prepared citation. Librarians might even choose to add the same citation in a record in more than one style as an aid to students/researchers in which case a scheme would be particularly helpful.
There seem to be lots of style manuals (see a brief listing below), but probably a small number see the widest use. It may be best to pursue a small number of these, at least initially, as schemes for registering (perhaps Chicago, MLA, APA).
Reference styles tend to be peculiar to disciplines and to vary in the following ways. The ISO and NISO standards are probably not in themselves a sufficient guide to all of these variations.
[A brief and not scientific or comprehensive study.]
In looking at MARC 21, a small number of citation styles are currently defined (all for legal style guides).
re00524bMARC 21 - FIELD 524 (Preferred Citation of Described Materials Note)
For English language legal materials this should probably also be added:
ISO 690-2 : Information and documentation -- Bibliographic references http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/iso/tc46sc9/standard/690-2e.htm
ANSI/NISO Z39.29-2003 : National Information Standards Organization (US). Bibliographic references. Betheda (MD): NISO Press; 2003.
Chicago : The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993 & Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996
The Columbia Guide to Online Style by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor (Columbia UP, 1998) presents a guide to locating, translating, and using the elements of citation for both a humanities style (i.e., MLA and Chicago ) and a scientific style ( APA and CBE ) for electronically-accessed sources
United States Government Printing Office style manual. Washington: The Office; 2000.
ASA : American Sociological Association Style Guide
Harvard and Vancouver systems:
Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation (Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991)
Patrias, Karen. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation. Supplement: Internet formats [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 2001 Jul. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf
CBE : Scientific style and Format: the CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. 6th edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994 [Council of Biology Editors]
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. http://www.cma.ca/cmaj/index.asp CMAJ 1997;156:270-7
Iverson, Cheryl; Flanagin, Annette; Fontanarosa, Phil B., et al. American Medical Association manual of style: a guide for authors and editors. 9th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1997.
ACS : Dodd, Janet S., editor. The ACS style guide: a manual for authors and editors. 2nd ed. Washington: American Chemical Society; 1997.