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Public Comment on changes to the DCMI Type Vocabulary

Title: Changes to the DCMI Type Vocabulary
Identifier: http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/2006/2006-02.dcmitype-changes.shtml
Date: 2006-08-28
Description: This decision text refers to
              http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02.

In 2005, the DCMI Usage Board undertook a review of the Definitions and Comments of terms in the DCMI Type Vocabulary [1,2]. Potential changes were discussed at meetings of the Usage Board in May 2005 [3] and September 2005 [4]. A public comment period on proposed changes was held from 8 December to 31 January 2006 [5,6]. Decisions on these changes were taken at a Usage Board meeting on 30 April 2006 [7] and are recorded in this decision document.

The proposed changes were essentially editorial in nature:

1) Definitions were wordsmithed for grammatical correctness
   and stylistic consistency.

2) As originally written, the Definitions of
   DCMI Type terms included information about expected
   uses of the term -- information which, for other types
   of DCMI terms, is typically provided in a separate
   Comment. For stylistic consistency, therefore, parts
   of the Definitions were split off into Comments.

The Usage Board did not undertake a fundamental review of the typology (ontology) offered in the DCMI Type Vocabulary. As explained in a posting to DC-GENERAL in December 2003 [8], the Usage Board does not intend to expand or otherwise improve the existing vocabulary; rather, it prefers that future efforts "focus on interoperability between the DCMI Type Vocabulary and other, more granular vocabularies created and maintained by communities of interest for specialized uses."

Public comment was therefore solicited primarily not on the concepts underlying the DCMI Types, but on the potential impact of the proposed editorial changes on existing interpretations and implementations (see summary of comments in [6]).

Finalizing the editorial changes after the public comment involved a discussion of the style used for definitions of the Type Vocabulary. Three styles were considered:

  1. The legacy style for the DCMI Type Vocabulary [9], e.g.:

     Collection: An aggregation of items.
    
  2. A style proposed during the comment period by Gregory Renaud [6], e.g.:

     Collection: A resource which is an aggregation of items.
    
  3. The style used by Andy Powell in a draft Domain-Range Vocabulary [10,11]:

     Collection: The class of all aggregations of items.
    

At its face-to-face meeting of 30 April 2006, the DCMI Usage Board reaffirmed the legacy style (style number 1) and approved the definition and comment texts which appear below.

[1] http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/ [2] http://dublincore.org/documents/2005/06/13/dcmi-terms/ [3] http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2005/05/washdc/topic-type-vocabulary/ [4] http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2005/09/madrid/type-vocabulary/ [5] http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/ [6] http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2006/03/type-vocabulary-comments/ [7] http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2006/04/seattle/dcmitype/ [8] http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/webadmin?A2=ind0312&L=dc-general&T=0&F=&S=&X=3E9FF4152D1B3DB3DF&Y=tbaker%40tbaker.de&P=444 [9] http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/ [10] http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2006/04/seattle/domains-ranges/2006-03-24.dcPropertiesRanges.pdf [11] http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2006/04/seattle/domains-ranges/

The approved texts:


URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Collection Label: Collection

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A collection is an aggregation of items. The term
Official&gt; collection means that the resource is
Official&gt; described as a group; its parts may be
Official&gt; separately described and navigated.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: An aggregation of items.
Proposed&gt; Comment: The term Collection means that the resource
Proposed&gt; is described as a group; its parts may also
Proposed&gt; be separately described and navigated.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: An aggregation of resources.

    Comment: A collection is described as a group; its parts
    may also be separately described.

Note justifying the change: The original definition
referred to "an aggregation of items". However,
the Usage Board wished to avoid confusion with the
more specific notion of "item" defined in the widely
discussed "Functional Requirements for Bibliographic
Records" as "a single exemplar of a manifestation"
(see http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.pdf).

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Dataset Label: Dataset

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A dataset is information encoded in a
Official&gt; defined structure (for example, lists,
Official&gt; tables, and databases), intended to be
Official&gt; useful for direct machine processing.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: Information encoded in a defined structure (for example,
Proposed&gt; lists, tables, and databases).
Proposed&gt; Comment: A Dataset is intended to be useful for direct machine
Proposed&gt; processing.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: Data encoded in a defined structure.

    Comment: Examples include lists, tables, and databases.
    A dataset may be useful for direct machine processing.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Event Label: Event

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: An event is a non-persistent, time-based
Official&gt; occurrence. Metadata for an event provides
Official&gt; descriptive information that is the basis
Official&gt; for discovery of the purpose, location,
Official&gt; duration, responsible agents, and links to
Official&gt; related events and resources. The resource
Official&gt; of type event may not be retrievable if
Official&gt; the described instantiation has expired
Official&gt; or is yet to occur. Examples - exhibition,
Official&gt; web-cast, conference, workshop, open-day,
Official&gt; performance, battle, trial, wedding,
Official&gt; tea-party, conflagration.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A non-persistent, time-based occurrence.
Proposed&gt; 
Proposed&gt; Comment: Metadata for an Event provides descriptive
Proposed&gt; information that is the basis for discovery of the
Proposed&gt; purpose, location, duration, and responsible
Proposed&gt; agents associated with an event. Examples 
Proposed&gt; include an exhibition, webcast, conference, workshop,
Proposed&gt; open day, performance, battle, trial, wedding, tea
Proposed&gt; party, conflagration.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A non-persistent, time-based occurrence.
    Comment: Metadata for an event provides descriptive
                information that is the basis for discovery of the
                purpose, location, duration, and responsible
                agents associated with an event. Examples 
                include an exhibition, webcast, conference, workshop,
                open day, performance, battle, trial, wedding, tea
                party, conflagration.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image Label: Image

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: An image is a primarily symbolic visual
Official&gt; representation other than text. For example -
Official&gt; images and photographs of physical objects,
Official&gt; paintings, prints, drawings, other images and
Official&gt; graphics, animations and moving pictures,
Official&gt; film, diagrams, maps, musical notation.
Official&gt; Note that image may include both electronic
Official&gt; and physical representations.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A primarily symbolic visual representation other than text.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include images and photographs
Proposed&gt; of physical objects, paintings, prints, drawings, other
Proposed&gt; images and graphics, animations and moving
Proposed&gt; pictures, film, diagrams, maps, musical
Proposed&gt; notation. Note that Image may include both
Proposed&gt; electronic and physical representations.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A visual representation other than text.
    Comment: Examples include images and photographs
                 of physical objects, paintings, prints, drawings, other
                 images and graphics, animations and moving
                 pictures, film, diagrams, maps, musical
                 notation. Note that Image may include both
                 electronic and physical representations.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/InteractiveResource Label: Interactive Resource

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: An interactive resource is a resource
Official&gt; which requires interaction from the user
Official&gt; to be understood, executed, or experienced.
Official&gt; For example - forms on web pages, applets,
Official&gt; multimedia learning objects, chat services,
Official&gt; virtual reality.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A resource which requires interaction from the user to
Proposed&gt; be understood, executed, or experienced.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include forms on Web pages, applets, multimedia
Proposed&gt; learning objects, chat services, virtual reality 
Proposed&gt; environments.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>
    Definition: A resource requiring interaction from the user to
                    be understood, executed, or experienced.
    Comment: Examples include forms on Web pages, applets, multimedia
                    learning objects, chat services, or virtual reality 
                    environments.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/MovingImage Label: Moving Image

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A series of visual representations that,
Official&gt; when shown in succession, impart an
Official&gt; impression of motion. Examples of moving
Official&gt; images are: animations, movies, television
Official&gt; programs, videos, zoetropes, or visual
Official&gt; output from a simulation.
Official&gt; Comment: Instances of the type "Moving Image" must
Official&gt; also be describable as instances of the
Official&gt; broader type "Image".

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A series of visual representations that, when shown in
Proposed&gt; succession, impart an impression of motion.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include animations, movies, television programs,
Proposed&gt; videos, zoetropes, or visual output from a simulation. 
Proposed&gt; Instances of the type Moving Image must also be describable 
Proposed&gt; as instances of the broader type Image.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A series of visual representations imparting
                an impression of motion when shown in succession.
    Comment: Examples include animations, movies, television programs,
                videos, zoetropes, or visual output from a simulation. 
                Instances of the type Moving Image must also be describable 
                as instances of the broader type Image.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/PhysicalObject Label: Physical Object

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: An inanimate, three-dimensional object or
Official&gt; substance. For example -- a computer,
Official&gt; the great pyramid, a sculpture. Note that
Official&gt; digital representations of, or surrogates
Official&gt; for, these things should use Image, Text
Official&gt; or one of the other types.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: An inanimate, three-dimensional object or substance.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Note that digital representations of, or surrogates for,
Proposed&gt; these objects should use Image, Text or one of the other 
Proposed&gt; types.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: An inanimate, three-dimensional object or substance.
    Comment: Note that digital representations of, or surrogates for,
                 these objects should use Image, Text or one of the other 
                 types.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Service Label: Service

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A service is a system that provides one or
Official&gt; more functions of value to the
Official&gt; end-user. Examples include: a photocopying
Official&gt; service, a banking service, an authentication
Official&gt; service, interlibrary loans, a Z39.50 or
Official&gt; Web server.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A system that provides one or more functions of value to
Proposed&gt; the end user.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include a photocopying service, a banking service,
Proposed&gt; an authentication service, interlibrary loans, a Z39.50 or 
Proposed&gt; Web server.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A system that provides one or more functions.
    Comment: Examples include a photocopying service, a banking service,
                    an authentication service, interlibrary loans, a Z39.50 or 
                    Web server.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Software Label: Software

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: Software is a computer program in source
Official&gt; or compiled form which may be available for
Official&gt; installation non-transiently on another
Official&gt; machine. For software which exists only
Official&gt; to create an interactive environment,
Official&gt; use interactive instead.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A computer program in source or compiled form
Proposed&gt; which may be available for installation nontransiently
Proposed&gt; on another machine.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include a C source file, MS-Windows
Proposed&gt; .exe executable, or Perl script.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A computer program in source or compiled form. 
    Comment: Examples include a C source file, MS-Windows .exe executable, 
                or Perl script.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Sound Label: Sound

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A sound is a resource whose content is
Official&gt; primarily intended to be rendered as
Official&gt; audio. For example - a music playback file
Official&gt; format, an audio compact disc, and recorded
Official&gt; speech or sounds.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A resource whose content is primarily intended to be
Proposed&gt; rendered as audio.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include a music playback file format, an audio
Proposed&gt; compact disc, and recorded speech or sounds.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A resource primarily intended to be heard.
    Comment: Examples include a music playback file format, an audio
                compact disc, and recorded speech or sounds.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/StillImage Label: Still Image

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A static visual representation. Examples
Official&gt; of still images are: paintings, drawings,
Official&gt; graphic designs, plans and maps.
Official&gt; Comment: Recommended best practice is to assign the
Official&gt; type "text" to images of textual
Official&gt; materials. Instances of the type "Still
Official&gt; Image" must also be describable as instances
Official&gt; of the broader type "Image". Narrower Than:
Official&gt; <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image</a>

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A static visual representation.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include paintings, drawings,
Proposed&gt; graphic designs, plans and maps. Recommended
Proposed&gt; best practice is to assign the type Text to
Proposed&gt; images of textual materials. Instances of the
Proposed&gt; type Still Image must also be describable as
Proposed&gt; instances of the broader type Image.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

     Definition: A static visual representation.
     Comment: Examples include paintings, drawings,
                 graphic designs, plans and maps. Recommended
                 best practice is to assign the type Text to
                 images of textual materials. Instances of the
                 type Still Image must also be describable as
                 instances of the broader type Image.

URI: http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text Label: Text

Official: <a href="/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/">http://dublincore.org/documents/2004/06/14/dcmi-type-vocabulary/</a>
Official&gt; Definition: A text is a resource whose content is
Official&gt; primarily words for reading. For example
Official&gt; - books, letters, dissertations, poems,
Official&gt; newspapers, articles, archives of mailing
Official&gt; lists. Note that facsimiles or images of
Official&gt; texts are still of the genre text.

Proposed: <a href="/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/">http://dublincore.org/usage/public-comment/2005/12/type-vocabulary-changes/</a>
Proposed&gt; Definition: A resource whose content is primarily words for reading.
Proposed&gt; Comment: Examples include books, letters, dissertations,
Proposed&gt; poems, newspapers, articles, archives of mailing
Proposed&gt; lists. Note that facsimiles or images of
Proposed&gt; texts are still of the genre Text.

Approved: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2006-02</a>

    Definition: A resource consisting primarily of words for reading.
    Comment: Examples include books, letters, dissertations,
                poems, newspapers, articles, archives of mailing
                lists. Note that facsimiles or images of
                texts are still of the genre Text.