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Decision on proposal to add the terms 'Moving

Title: Decision on proposal to add the terms "Moving
                  Image" and "Still Image" to the DCMI Type Vocabulary
Shepherd: Diane Hillmann
Identifier: http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/2003/2003-02.Image-terms.shtml
Date: 2003-11-18
Description: The decision documented here refers to
                  two proposals from the DCMI Type Working
                  Group that were considered at the Usage
                  Board meeting of 16-17 June 2003 in Ithaca.
                  This document is pointed to from the official
                  list of Usage Board Decisions [1].

Text of proposals:

<a href="/usage/meetings/2003/06/MovingImage.html">http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2003/06/MovingImage.html</a>
<a href="/usage/meetings/2003/06/StillImage.html">http://dublincore.org/usage/meetings/2003/06/StillImage.html</a>

Decision

The Usage Board approves the addition of two new terms --
'Moving Image' and 'Still Image' -- to the DCMI Type
vocabulary as semantic refinements of the existing,
more general term 'Image'.

Discussion

The DCMI Type Working Group proposed two new terms -- 'Moving Image' and 'Still Image' (semantic refinements of 'Image'). In addition, the group proposed that the Usage Board deprecate the term 'Image' and change the documentation to mandate that either 'Moving Image' or 'Still Image' be used in preference to the more general term 'Image'.

The Usage Board has approved the addition of the two new terms to the DCMI Type vocabulary, but it did not approve the deprecation of the term 'Image.' Instead, the UB has approved these terms as semantic refinements of the more general term. This allows implementers who have no need for the more specific terms to continue using the more general term while those who wish to use the two more specific terms may do so.

Inasmuch it defines a hierarchical relationship between vocabulary terms, this compromise decision represents a departure from prior practice in DCMI, which has hitherto treated the DCMI Type Vocabulary as a small, flat set of terms with no such internal structure. Specifically, it entails the introduction of distinctions between semantically "broader" and "narrower" terms. This distinction will be expressed with two new attributes for term declarations -- "Narrower Than" and "Broader Than". These attributes will be documented in the Introduction to the document "DCMI Metadata Terms" [1].

Since the first DCMI Type Vocabulary was approved in July 2000, a requirement to distinguish between still and moving images has become increasingly clear within the community of implementers dealing primarily with images. The history of this development (as reflected in the proposal) and the support for the new terms evident in that community convinced the Board to move beyond its reluctance to complexify the DCMI Type Vocabulary with semantic refinements. While recognizing that this decision has the potential to confuse new users, the Usage Board feels it is necessary in order to deal effectively with both specialized and non-specialized implementers, which will be affected very differently by this change.

Other user communities will see further ways the DCMI Type Vocabulary could be extended. Rather than build a more comprehensive ontology of resource types on the basis of the existing vocabulary, however, the Usage Board prefers to focus on interoperability between the DCMI Type Vocabulary and other, more granular vocabularies created and maintained by communities of interest for specialized uses.

Since hierarchical relations between terms are symmetrical, the declaration of "Narrower Than" relations for "Still Image" and "Moving Image" imply the addition of two "Broader Than" relations for the existing term "Image". This addition to the term declaration for "Image" is reflected in the approved texts below.

[1] http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/

Approved text - beginning

VMS-ID: StillImage-001
Name: StillImage
URI: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/StillImage">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/StillImage</a>
isDefinedBy: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/</a>
Label: Still Image
Definition: A static visual representation. Examples of
               still images are: paintings, drawings, graphic designs,
               plans and maps.
Comment: Recommended best practice is to assign the type
               "text" to images of textual materials. Instances of
               the type "Still Image" must also be describable as
               instances of the broader type "Image".
Type of Term: <a href="/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term</a>
Narrower Than: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image</a>
seeAlso: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2003-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2003-02</a>
Date issued: 2003-11-18
Status: <a href="/usage/documents/process/#recommended">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/process/#recommended</a>

Approved text - end

Approved text - beginning

VMS-ID: MovingImage-001
Name: MovingImage
URI: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/MovingImage">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/MovingImage</a>
isDefinedBy: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/</a>
Label: Moving Image
Definition: A series of visual representations that,
               when shown in succession, impart an impression
               of motion. Examples of moving images are:
               animations, movies, television programs,
               videos, zoetropes, or visual output from
               a simulation.
Comment: Instances of the type "Moving Image" must also
               be describable as instances of the broader type
               "Image".
Type of Term: <a href="/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term</a>
Narrower Than: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image</a>
seeAlso: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2003-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2003-02</a>
Date issued: 2003-11-18
Status: <a href="/usage/documents/process/#recommended">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/process/#recommended</a>

Approved text - end

Approved text - beginning

VMS-ID: Image-002
Name: Image
URI: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Image</a>
isDefinedBy: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/</a>
Label: Image
Definition: An image is a primarily symbolic visual representation
               other than text. For example - images and photographs of
               physical objects, paintings, prints, drawings, other
               images and graphics, animations and moving pictures,
               film, diagrams, maps, musical notation. Note that image
               may include both electronic and physical representations.
Type of Term: <a href="/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/principles/#vocabulary-term</a>
Broader Than: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/StillImage">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/StillImage</a>
Broader Than: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/MovingImage">http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/MovingImage</a>
seeAlso: <a href="/usage/decisions/#Decision-2000-02">http://dublincore.org/usage/decisions/#Decision-2003-02</a>
Date Issued: 2000-07-11
Date Modified: 2003-11-18
Status: <a href="/usage/documents/process/#recommended">http://dublincore.org/usage/documents/process/#recommended</a>

Approved text - end