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DCMI Citations Working Group

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative - Citation Working Group

DC2002 Working Group Meeting, 2002-10-16 (16:30-18:30)

Chair: Ann Apps <>, University of Manchester, UK

Main Points

Report of DC2002 DC-Citation Working Group Meeting

1. Overview of the work of the group and the two proposals:

2. Identifier Encoding Schemes. During the last year the WG has accumulated a list of relevant standard and commonly used identifier encoding schemes. This list is a working group resource and should be maintained. Some of these schemes should be registered with DCMI. This will probably be by short proposals, but these particular encoding schemes may in fact be registered by the DC-Libraries WG. Another possibility would be to encode identifiers as URIs, eg. urn:issn:0740-8188.

3. OpenURL. An overview was given of the development of the NISO OpenURL standard. It has been proposed as a means of encoding bibliographic citation information in a machine-parsable way within the string value of a DC property. It is DCMI policy to utilise other standards where possible. OpenURL covers more material types than just journal articles, including books and conference papers, so would save the WG from having to define these. The WG thinks that OpenURL does not provide a replacement for the proposed DCMICite DCSV, but could provide an alternative encoding format within a string value. The WG will produce guidelines for encoding bibliographic citation information using OpenURL 'by-value' metadata, because people will want to encode bibliographic citation in this way. Possibly this will be part of a wider 'Guidelines for Encoding Bibliographic Citation Information in DC'. Initially this will be for the draft OpenURL version 0.1 currently in use. The guidelines will be updated with OpenURL version 1.0 when the standard is agreed and available. There are 2 problems with using OpenURL which will need to be addressed in the guidelines:

In his Keynote talk, Herbert Van de Sompel suggested that when the OpenURL registry becomes available, DC could register its scheme for bibliographic citations, then DC could be used as a 'by-value' format within an OpenURL. This is something the WG could consider after the DCMICite DCSV has been approved. It seems sad that the development of a means of encoding journal article bibliographic citation information in DC has taken so long. If it had already been in place, it is likely that OpenURL would have adopted it.

4. XML Encoding. The proposed DCMICite DCSV is just for a structured string representation of citation information. Some applications will want to encode this information in XML. It may be possible to use the XML schemas for bibliographic items being developed by OpenURL and OAI as a means of providing an XML encoding for such items within a Dublin Core record. This is something the WG should work on, following the Encoding DC in XML Guidelines. Some input may be needed from the DC-Architecture WG.

5. Citation Styles. It has been suggested that some Citation styles could be used as encoding schemes with dcterms:bibliographicCitation or dcterms:references. The WG has already begun to assemble a list of these which will continue. The WG will then choose a few, which are most commonly used, to support. The most likely are APA and Chicago. There is no intention to include every publisher's house style. They will be registered as encoding schemes for use with dcterms:bibliographicCitation and dcterms:references. Some reasons for doing this work:

6. Open Issues.


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