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Using Dublin Core


Using Dublin Core - Readings & References

Date Issued:
Date Updated: 2001-03-07
Is Replaced By:
Is Part Of:
Latest Version:
Status of Document:
This is a DCMI Working Draft.
Description of Document: This document is intended as an entry point for users of Dublin Core. For non-specialists, it will assist them in creating simple descriptive records for information resources (for example, electronic documents). Specialists may find the document a useful point of reference to the documentation of Dublin Core, as it changes and grows.

8. Readings & References

All links checked on February 13, 2001.


  • Bibliographies
  • Specifications
  • Other Guidelines and Tools
  • Background Reading
    • 2001
    • 2000
    • 1999
    • 1998
    • 1997
    • 1996
    • 1995


Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

CIMI Dublin Core Metadata Testbed Project. Webliography. Available:

Particularly good for information about projects using DC.

International Federation of Library Associations. Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources. Available:

Includes a section on Dublin Core, focussing on Dublin Core Workshops and related papers.

Metadata / UKOLN. Available:

National Library of Australia. MetaMatters. (1999-05-24). Available:

Swick, Ralph, Resource Description Framework (RDF) [Online]. Available:


Alvestrand, H. Tags for the identification of languages. RFC 1766. Available:

DCMI. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: Reference Description Available:

DCMI. Dublin Core Qualifiers. 2000-07-11. Available:

English country names and code elements. [2-letter country codes]. ISO 3166-1. Available:

International Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval (Z39.50): Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification" Available:

ISO 639 Language Codes. Available:

Weibel, S. et al. Dublin Core Metadata for Resource Discovery. RFC 2413. Available:

World Wide Web Consortium. Date and time formats. [profile of ISO 8601]. Available:

World Wide Web Consortium. Metadata activity statement. Available:

Other Guidelines and Tools

CIMI. Guide to best practice: Dublin Core. Version 1.1. August 1999.

Describes the use of unqualified DC in a CIMI project.

Colorado Digital Libraries. General Guidelines for descriptive metadata creation & entry. Spring 1999. Available:

Nordic Metadata Project. Dublin Core Metadata Template. (1998-03-17) Available:

Nordic Metadata Project. d2m: Dublin Core to MARC converter. (1998-05-18) Available:

UKOLN. DC-assist: Dublin Core assistant. Available:

UKOLN. DC-dot: Dublin Core metadata editor. Available:

Background Reading


Lagoze, Carl. "Keeping Dublin Core simple: cross-domain discovery or resource description?" D-Lib Magazine. No. 6 (January 2001). Available:


Baker, Thomas. "A grammar of Dublin Core." D-Lib Magazine. No. 6. Issue 11. (October, 2000). Available:

Day, Michael. Metadata: mapping between formats. (Last updated: 10-Aug-2000). Available:

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Presentations from DC-8 Workshops. Available: http:/

Presentations from DC-8, the most recent Dublin Core workshop (Ottawa, October 4-6, 2000).

Links to previous conference home pages and publications can be found on the DCMI web site at:

Heery, Rachel and Manjula Patel. "Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas." Ariadne. 25. Available:

Powell, Andy, Michael Heaney, and Lorcan Dempsey. "RSLP collection description." D-Lib Magazine (September 2000). Available:

Weibel, Stuart and Traugott Koch. "The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: mission, current activities, and future directions." D-Lib Magazine (December 2000). Available:


Burk, Alan. "Metadata and the Dublin Core." Information Technology. (1) Available:

Dublin Core Reference Model 1.0 (DCMI Working Draft - 22 December 1999). Editors: Renato Iannella, Eric Miller, Paul Miller. [Online]. Available:

Hakala, Juha. Nordic metadata project. Homepage. (1999-03-05). Available:

Lagoze, Carl. Dublin Core views of an underlying data model. February 29, 1999. Available:

Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Dublin Core/MARC/GILS crosswalk. November 1999. Available:

Library of Congress, Network Development and MARC Standards Office,1999. MARC 21 Concise Format for Bibliographic Data [Online]. Available:

Milstead, Jessica and Susan Feldman. Metadata: cataloging by any other name... Online (January 1999). Available:

Ibid. Metadata projects and standards. Online (January 1999). Available:

Vellucci, Sherry L. "Metadata for music: issues and directions." Fontes: Artis musicae, v. 46, no. 3-4 (July-December 1999): 205-217.

Weibel, Stuart, 1999. "The State of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative." D-Lib Magazine (April 1999). Available:


Dempsey, Lorcan and Rachel Heery. "Metadata: a current view of practice and issues." Journal of Documentation, Vol. 54, no.2 (March 1998): 145-172. Available:

IFLA. Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. Functional requirements for bibliographic records. Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1998. Available:

LeVan, Ralph, 1998. Dublin Core and Z39.50. OCLC Office of Research and Special Projects. [Online]. Available:

Miller, Eric, et al. Using Web metadata. (04/10/1998) Available:

Thiele, Harold, 1998. The Dublin Core and Warwick Framework: A Review of the Literature, March 1995 - September 1997 D-Lib Magazine, January 1998. [Online]. Available:

Xu, Amanda, 1998. Metadata Conversion and the Library OPAC The Serials Librarian 33 (1-4). [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 8 December 2000].


Caplan, Priscilla L., 1997.To Hel(sinki) and back for the Dublin Core Public-Access Computer Systems Review [Online] v. 8 no4 ('97) p. 26-30. Available:

CIMI. CIMI Dublin Core metadata testbed project description. (1997). Available:

Cromwell-Kessler, Willy, 1997. Dublin Core Metadata in the RLG Information Landscape. D-Lib Magazine, December. [Online] Available:

Cromwell-Kessler, Willy and Ricky Erway, 1997. Metadata Summit: Meeting Report. [Online]. Available:

Dempsey, Lorcan and Rachel Heery,1997, Part 1. Metadata: A survey of current resource description formats in Specification for resource description methods. [Online]. Available:

Desai, Bipin C., 1997. Supporting discovery in virtual libraries. (two proposed index metadata structures for indexing and supporting search and discovery: the Dublin Core Elements List and the Semantic Header) Journal of the American Society for Information Science v. 48 (Mar. '97) p. 190-204

Erway, Ricky, 1997. Guidelines for extending the use of Dublin Core elements to create a generic aplication integrating all kinds of information resources. [Online]. Available:

Godby, C. Jean and Eric J. Miller, 1997. A Metalanguage for Describing Internet Resources. The Annual Review of OCLC Research 1996. [Online]. Available:

Hansen, Preben, 1997, User Guidelines for Dublin Core Creation, Nordic Metadata Project [Online]. Available:

Lange, Holley R., B. Jean Winkler, 1997. Taming the Internet: metadata, a work in progress. Advances in librarianship, v21, p. 47-72.

Library of Congress, 1997. Metadata, Dublin Core, and USMARC: A Review of Current Efforts, MARBI Discussion Paper 99 [Online]. Available:

Miller, Paul and Danield Greenstein, eds., 1997. Discovering Online Resources Across the Humanities: A practical implementation of the Dublin Core, 95 p. [Also online] Available:

Weibel, Stuart and Carl Lagoze, 1997. An element set to support resource discovery. International Journal on Digital Libraries 1: 176-186.

Weibel, Stuart L. and Eric Miller, 1997. Image Description on the Internet: A Summary of the CNI/OCLC Image Metadata Workshop. D-Lib Magazine, January. Available:

Younger, Jennifer, 1997. Resources description in the digital age. (Dublin Core: basic set of data elements) Library Trends v. 45 (Winter '97) p. 462-87.


Burnard, Lou et al. 1996, A Syntax for Dublin Core Metadata: recommendations from the Second Metadata Workshop. [Online]. Available:

Caplan, Priscilla, and Rebecca Guenther, 1996. Metadata for Internet Resources: The Dublin Core Metadata Elements Set and Its Mapping to USMARC. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly. 22 (3/4).

Caplan, Priscilla L., 1996. You call it corn, we call it syntax-independent metadata for document-like objects (defining a standard for describing network-accessible information resources; report of the OCLC/NCSA metadata workshop, Dublin, Ohio) Public-Access Computer Systems Review [Online] v. 6 no4 ('95) p. 19-23. Available:

Dempsey, Lorcan, 1996. Meta Detectors, Ariadne 3 [Online]. Available

Dempsey, Lorcan, and Stuart L. Weibel, 1996. The Warwick Metadata Workshop: A Framework for the Deployment of Resource Description. D-Lib Magazine. [Online]. July/August 1996. Available:

Dempsey, L., 1996. ROADS to Desire: some UK and other European Metadata and Resource Discovery Projects, D-Lib Magazine, [Online].July/August, Available:

Lagoze, Carl, Clifford A. Lynch, and Ron Daniel, Jr., 1996. The Warwick Framework: A Container Architecture for Aggregating Sets of Metadata. Cornell Computer Science Technical report TR96-1593, [Online]. Available:

Lagoze, Carl, 1996. The Warwick Framework: A Container Architecture for Diverse Sets of Metadata, D-Lib Magazine, July/August. [Online] Available:

Miller, Paul, 1996. Metadata for the Masses. Ariadne 5 [Online]. Available:

Schwartz, M., 1996. Report of the W3C Distributed Indexing/Searching workshop [Online]. Available:

Weibel, Stuart, 1996.The changing landscape of networked resource description. (Dublin Core record for Internet resources) Library Hi Tech v. 14 no1 ('96) p. 7-10

Wiebel, S. and Eric J. Miller, 1996. Image Description on the Internet: Summary of CNI/OCLC Image Metadata Workshop. Annual Review of OCLC Research 1996. [Online]. Available:

Woodruff, Allison, Paul M. Aoki, Eric Brewer, Paul Gauthier, and Lawrence A. Rowe. (1996). An Investigation of Documents from the World Wide Web. In Fifth International World Wide Web Conference, May 6-10, 1996, Paris, France. [Online]. Available:


Catledge, Lara D. and James E. Pitkow. (1995). Characterizing Browsing Strategies in the World-Wide Web. In The Third International World-Wide Web Conference: Technology, Tools and Applications. April 10-14, 1995. Darmstadt, Germany. [Online]. Available:

Library of Congress, Network Development and MARC Standards Office (1995). Discussion Paper No: 88. Defining a Generic Author Field in USMARC. [Online]. Available:

Weibel, Stuart L. 1995, Metadata: the Foundations for Resource Description, D-Lib Magazine, July 1995. [Online] Available:

Weibel, Stuart, Jean Godby, Eric Miller, and Ron Daniel, 1995. OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop Report. [Online] Available: